Year 1832; Giuseppe Mazzini founds “Young Italy” (giovane Italia), a society to make propaganda for the unification of the Italian nation as a democratic and class-free republic; “our problem is, above all things, a problem of national education:, that is, of persuading the peoples of the peninsula and the islands of Italy to regard themselves as a single nation. Before 1860 “Italy” had been the name of a peninsula with the patriotism of the Italians being of their town only.
Year 1859: Garibaldi lands in Sicily and conjures up thousands of locals, racing across Sicily winning battles against the Bourbons then crossing the Straits of Messina, invading the southern part of the Italian peninsula. On October 1st of 1860 Garibaldi meets the King at Teano and hands over southern Italy with Sicily and Sardinia to the King of Piedmont. Cavour meanwhile had ceded ltaly’s Nizza (Nice) to France to win France’s support for the Piedmont’s annexation of central Italy. But in the paternalistic Kingdom of the Two Sicilies had kept their national debt and taxes low, it had kept food cheap and it had protected its industry from foreign competition. These practices had been reversed by the new regime; and the Piemontese will soon be more hated than Napoleon or the Bourbons ever were.
In 1861 (March 17) Vittorio Emanuele ll King of Piedmont is proclaimed “King of Italy” and the Piemontese constitution becomes the law of all of Italy.
1861-1865, although the north claims 99% approval by the Sicilian Kingdom, it took half of the new “Italian” army to suppress the rebellions in the south of Italy, since that time called “ll Mezzogiorno”. The South Includes; Sicily, Calabria, Campania, Basilicata, Apugiia, Molise and Abruzzo.
1870, Rome is made capital of the Kingdom of Italy after having been annexed from Papal rule.